Italy earthquake 6.2 level unexpectedly caused GDP loss nearly 1%, why so serious-shuyue

Italy earthquake 6.2 level unexpectedly caused GDP loss nearly 1%, why so serious? U.S. stock market center: exclusive national industry sector stocks, premarket after hours, ETF, real-time quotes of local time on August 24, 2016, the central city of Italy and the local earthquake struck amath. Photo source: 6.2 earthquake occurred at 3:36 a.m. local time in central Italy, China, and the quake lasted for about 20 seconds. Then a 5.5 aftershock occurred again in the same place. According to the US Geological Survey (USGS), the epicenter is located about 76 km southeast of Perugia (Perugia), with a focal depth of about 10 km, which is a very shallow earthquake. According to Broadcasting British Corporation (BBC) reported that as of midnight local time on August 24th, the earthquake has killed at least 159 people were killed, 368 people were injured. The United States Geological Survey earthquake casualties and economic losses were released orange and red warning, and predicted that the earthquake will cause serious loss of life and economy. After the earthquake, the U.S. Geological Survey initially expected, based on past experience, the death toll of the earthquake may be between 100 to thousands of people, economic losses could reach 1 billion to 10 billion U.S. dollars, resulting in the loss of nearly 1% of Italy GDP. The magnitude of the quake is relatively low, but why is it so serious? The boundary of plates causes earthquakes to occur frequently. From the point of view of geology, the peninsula Italy is belong to the earthquakes, geological faults almost throughout the whole country, the Richter 5 earthquake, 6 from the probability that be not at all surprising. West of the peninsula belongs to the Eurasian plate, South African plate, the latter at an annual rate of 2 cm northward. In addition, there is a peninsula east move toward the Northeast Adria plates, several large plates or extrusion stretching may lead to geological activity, the energy will be accumulated to a certain extent the outbreak of the earthquake. BBC said, in the eastern part of Italy, between the peninsula and Sardinia Corsica at its Anhai years is slowly opened. Scientists believe that this is conducive to the Apennine Peninsula through the mountains of central Italy expansion. In the west of Italy, in the Adriatic Sea, there is some evidence that the earth’s crust continues to move toward Italy, but this argument remains controversial. Italy first encounter a large earthquake in May 2012, is located in the northern part of the country at that time, Emilia – Rome Nirvana region within 10 days has occurred 6 and 5.8 earthquake, killing 24 people, 15 thousand people have been displaced. Compared with earthquakes in the southern region, the earthquake occurred in the north and also attracted the attention of geologists. At that time, Dr. John Elliott of University of Oxford earthquake and geological observation and model center that Emilia – Rome, Auvergne earthquake is the result of the expansion section, is a reverse fault (thrust faulting) earthquake. When some small faults are involved, this type of fault often forms a blind reverse fault (blind thrust faulti1)

意大利地震6.2级竟致GDP损失近1% 为何如此严重? 美股行情中心:独家提供全美股行业板块、盘前盘后、ETF、权证实时行情 当地时间2016年8月24日,意大利中部城市阿马特里切,当地遭受地震袭击。图片来源:视觉中国   意大利中部地区当地时间凌晨3时36分发生6.2级地震,震动持续20秒左右。随后在同一地方再次发生一次5.5级余震。根据美国地质调查局(USGS)分析,震中位于佩鲁贾(Perugia)东南约76公里,震源深度约10公里,属极浅层地震。   据英国广播公司(BBC)报道,截至当地时间8月24日午夜,地震已造成至少159人遇难,368人受伤。   美国地质调查局就地震伤亡及经济损失分別发布橙色和红色预警,并预测,地震将造成人员和经济的严重损失。地震发生后,美国地质调查局最初预计,根据以往经验,此次地震死亡人数可能在100人到上千人之间,经济损失可能高达10亿到100亿美元,导致意大利GDP近1%的损失。   这次地震级别相对不高,但为何预估损失会如此严重?   板块交界,导致地震多发。从地质学角度分析,意大利所属的亚平宁半岛本就属于地震多发地,地质断层几乎贯穿整个国家,发生里氏5、6级地震从概率上说不足为奇。   亚平宁半岛以西属于欧亚大陆板块,以南为非洲板块,后者以每年2厘米的速度向北移动。此外,半岛以东还存在一个朝东北方向移动的阿德里亚小板块,几大板块间的挤压或者拉伸可能引发地质活动,待能量积累到一定程度就会爆发地震。   BBC称,在意大利东部,亚平宁半岛和撒丁岛 科西嘉岛之间的第勒尼安海多年来正在慢慢打开。科学家认为,这有利于沿亚平宁半岛贯穿意大利中部山脉的扩张。在意大利西部的在亚得里亚海,有一些证据表明,地壳不断向意大利方向俯冲,但该观点尚存争议。   意大利前一次遭遇较大地震是在2012年5月,当时,位于该国北部的艾米利亚-罗马涅大区10天内先后发生6级和5.8级地震,造成24人死亡,1.5万人流离失所。与地震多发于南部地区相比,那场地震发生在北部也引起了地质学家的关注。   当时,牛津大学地震和地质构造观察和模型中心的John Elliott博士认为,艾米利亚-罗马涅大区地震是版块扩张的结果,属逆断层(thrust faulting)地震。当一些小断层也参与其中时,这种类型的断层往往形成盲逆动断层(blind thrust faulting)地震。“也就是说,在一个深的沉积盆地里,你会看到断层错动造成的上部覆岩产生的褶曲(folds),但断层不会突破地表。这是一种隐藏的风险。”   而这一次发生在中部地区的地震的震源、发生时间等多种因素综合也会放大损失。   浅源爆发,加重了危害。与2009年造成巨大损失的拉奎拉地震一样,此次佩鲁贾地震震源深度只有10公里,如此靠近地面的震动破坏威力巨大。   地震发生于当地时间凌晨3时36分,当时大多数居民仍处于睡梦之中。当楼房屋顶在突如其来的地震中坍塌,处于黑暗中的居民难以有足够时间和反应逃离。   尽管多震的意大利对地震有应对经验,此次地震对当地许多建筑物而言,仍是严峻考验。   英国地质调查所的Susanne Sargeant博士指出, “我们充分了解地震的危害性,但加固建筑物的工作量十分巨大”,“许多老的建筑物将从加固工程中获益,但我们知道,对每一个建筑物都实施加固是一个巨大的挑战”。   佩鲁贾地区的许多地方都是历史古城,很多建筑的历史可以追溯到文艺复兴时期,难以抵御持续约20秒的地震。   20世纪以来,意大利前后发生过十余次严重地震,特别是1908年那场墨西拿地震,造成逾82,000人死亡;还有1915年的阿布鲁佐地震,造成32,600人遇难。 责任编辑:李栓 SF171相关的主题文章: