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The History Of Antique World Maps-qqq258.com

Since antiquity we have tried to make sense of the world around us and it is this drive to understand and document our environment has given rise to one of arts’ least appreciated gems – antique maps and cartography. Although today we are used to maps as dry, functional things that we occasionally reach for when lost, it was only a few centuries ago that they .manded the attention and wonder normally reserved for great works of art. Origins Until relatively recently our curiosity of the world around us outpaced our knowledge of geography. Early attempts at extending this knowledge were limited to oral tradition and based squarely on what people could see for themselves. This knowledge of a landscape and local environment, often .bined with lore and myth, helped create living maps .municated from person to person and generation to generation. The need for more reliable methods of .municating this local knowledge led to the development of topographical maps. These captured the salient elements of a terrain to more reliably record and pass on knowledge. These early maps tended to concentrate on the relationships between obvious topographical features, with little attention paid to true measurement or accuracy. However these early attempts were successful in that they stored knowledge for future generations and, although inaccurate by the standards employed today, it did standardize the kind of knowledge passed between generations and helped sow the seeds for early cartography. They also offer historians a unique glimpse into the lives and preoccupations of these primitive societies. Early maps Some of the oldest known maps date from 5000 BCE, however it wasn’t until the development of geometry around 2500 years later that we begin to see maps that attempt to describe spatial relationships accurately. The ancient Egyptians used maps around this time to plot areas around the Nile which, because of flooding, rendered landmarks unusable at certain times of the year. Ancient Greece did much to refine and develop cartography into the science we know today. Greek astronomer Ptolemy is the most famous example from this time, and his important work Geographia survived relatively intact through time. Although the maps are inaccurate by today’s standards they did set in motion the beginnings of cartography, and placed importance on accurate observation to make sense of the world around us. Later Maps and Modern Cartography The Middle Ages were a period of relatively poor development in terms of maps. The stress was on maps that emphasized religious bias, often depicting Jerusalem as the center of the world. However, the end of the Medieval period saw the beginning of cartography’s rise as both a science and an art, .manding equal attention for both. By the 16th century the world’s great powers .peted to dominate the globe and the need for accurate charts and maps grew. This gave rise to the role of cartography, often draftsmen working for navies to give life to the hard earned knowledge from seafaring nations like the Dutch and British. Although initially fulfilling a technical need the role of the cartographer soon developed along similar lines to other crafts. By the 17th century skilled cartographers were in great demand. This recognition of the profession soon gave rise to professional cartographers who took cartography from drawing functional charts to creating unique works of art. Many maps from this period were embellished with decorative elements, such as sea monsters and mythical creatures. At this time maps were designed not just for functionality but also to attract buyers. Their rich detail and artistic expression added much to their value, both as working tools and as desirable objects. The increasing use of maps at this time also helped usher in the enlightenment, a direct descendant of cartographies’ need for accurate, scientific measurement. The increasing availability of good quality maps demonstrated humanities ability to make sense of their world and, to a certain extent, gain some control over it. A Distinguished History The development of charts and maps has echoed our desire to make sense of our world, as well as providing an insight into the knowledge possessed by humans at different times throughout history. The history of antique maps reflects our growing confidence and awareness of the finite nature of the world and, although it is something we now take for granted, its history demonstrates its central importance. Copyright The Tapestry House, all rights reserved. This is Free-Reprint article from The Tapestry House. Our terms are: Please leave copyright statement intact Please publish author info including links Please do not use the article in unsolicited emails Please keep all links intact and "as is" – no embedded keyword advertising You can contact us at 相关的主题文章:

i Just Cant Lose Weight-kd.wuhan.net.cn

UnCategorized I hear this statement everyday in my office like clockwork. I promptly ask "Do you have a thyroid condition?" "Are you currently taking steroids?" The answer 99.9% of the time is always no. Now I understand. You chose not to lose weight. Of course everyone can lose weight unless they have a valid medical condition which prevents weight loss. So, why do I hear the above expression daily? Nowadays, people are quick to blame others for every bad incident or failure in their lives. It’s how we have been conditioned in our society. I myself have personally seen obesity run rampant over the last few years. I am regularly being outweighed by grade school kids. Ten years ago, this would not have been an issue. I even had a six year old who was so obese he could not even ride a bicycle! I repeatedly tried talking to the parents, but to no avail, they were not concerned. Was it because they were also obese so they did not find anything wrong with their son being so dangerously overweight? Another instance, I had a 450 pound woman waddle into my office. She actually bragged about her weight and stated once she reached 500 pounds she could collect partial disability! Is this what our society has be.e? Always looking for a way to shirk responsibility or even manual labor? And opt for a free ride in life. How this particular woman could look at herself in the mirror every morning is beyond my .prehension. Every day, I do my very best to help my patients in every way including weight loss. They are always looking for that magic pill to melt pounds away. Why? Because then the responsibility of losing weight is no longer on their shoulders. If the pill doesn’t work, oh well, guess they were just destined to be fat. No need to stop shoveling food in their mouths every hour or start an exercise program. All the patients I have personally seen who have had gastric bypass surgery are now just as obese before their surgery. They lost the weight, but could not burden the responsibility of maintaining it. Is the surgeon to blame? Was the procedure not a success? Obviously, the above statements are not true. The patients chose to be overweight. Obesity is rarely a disease. It’s a choice one makes just like whether to decide what clothes they are going to wear to work in the morning. If the outfit does not look good, then they promptly change it to one which does. Weight loss is the same. If you do not like the way you look then change it. No one else is going to lose the weight for you. If you went to work with mismatched clothes, would you tell your boss, it’s not your fault because your husband dressed you? Would he accept that excuse? No he would not because how you were dressed was ultimately your decision. Remember, weight loss is your choice. You either chose to be overweight or you chose not to be, but it’s only your decision alone and no one else’s. About the Author: 相关的主题文章:

Top 4 Tanning Methods!-x3210

Womens-Issues If you’ve ever used a self-tanner, chances are, you’ve experienced a horror story involving streaking or orange palms. While easy to use once you get the hang of them, these summer must-haves are also simple to misapply if you haven’t mastered the right technique. The reason? All self-tanners contain a chemical called dihydroxyacetone, or DHA, which temporarily stains (within about an hour) the uppermost layer of your skin, called the stratum corneum. So if you don’t apply the product right to begin with, it’s hard to stop this process once it starts–why we asked experts for tips on how to get a healthy glow in no time. Bronzers Cosmetic bronzers produce immediate effects that can be easily removed with soap and water. Bronzers are available as powders, creams, and lotions. These products are essentially a form of make-up, since the tint only lasts until it is washed off. Tanning Lotions and Sprays Perhaps the most effective sunless tanning products are lotions and sprays containing dihydroxyacetone (DHA) as the active ingredient. DHA is a colorless sugar that interacts with the dead cells located in the upper layer of the epidermis. As the sugar interacts with the dead skin cells, a color change occurs. This change usually lasts about five to seven days from the initial application. Tanning Pills Tanning pills typically contain the pigment canthaxanthin. Although the FDA has approved the use of canthaxanthin as a color additive in food, it has not approved its use as a tanning agent. Much larger quantities of canthaxanthin than the amount used as a food coloring must be ingested to change skin color. After canthaxanthin is consumed, it is deposited throughout the body, including in the skin, which turns an orange-brown color, and also the internal organs (liver, brain, etc.). Canthaxanthin-based tanning pills have been linked to dangerous side effects, including hepatitis (inflammation of the liver) and canthaxanthin retinopathy (formation of yellow deposits in the retina of the eye). Tanning Accelerators Most tanning accelerators are lotions or pills that contain the amino acid tyrosine. Makers of these products believe that the tyrosine stimulates and increases melanin formation, thereby accelerating the natural tanning process. However, more scientific data is needed to determine the validity of these claims and to assess the safety of using large amounts of tyrosine. Sunless tanning lotions now .e in light, medium, and dark tones. People with dry skin can buy brands with emollients or humectants added for softness and moisture, while people with oily skin may find that gel or alcohol-based products work better. And recently, ingredients such as vitamins, herbal extracts, antioxidants, and alpha-hydroxy acids are being added to some products in an effort to expand their benefits. About the Author: 相关的主题文章:

Understand Proper Food Safety Principles To Avoid Food Poisoning-嘿嘿taxi

Food-and-Drink Did you know there are more than 250 different varieties of food poisoning specifically caused by disregarding proper food safety precautions? Some of these illnesses will make you very ill for 24 to 48 hours; others will sicken you to the point of needing hospitalization. And others, unfortunately, may cause death. Because of its symptoms, food poisoning can often be incorrectly diagnosed as a case of stomach flu and thus won’t be correlated to previously ingested food simply because it may take anywhere from one hour to twenty-four hours before someone begins to feel sick from eating contaminated food, depending on the type of pathogen responsible for the food-borne illness. There are four different types of microorganisms which cause food poisoning: bacteria, viruses, parasites, and toxins. Bacterial food contamination is the most .mon, caused by dirty utensils, unsanitized food prep areas, and food that was already contaminated before reaching its destination. Bacteria thrive in an environment where the temperature is between 40 and 130 degrees Fahrenheit, which is roughly the normal temperature of most livable areas. Salmonella is a .mon bacterial infection found in such foods as eggs, fish, and chicken, and originates in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. Clostridium botulinum, or botulism, is another bacterial toxin caused by tainted food, not as .mon as salmonella, and with less than one in every four hundred cases of food poisoning accounting for botulism. But botulism is more fatal, causing death in nearly 30% of all cases. It is most .monly found in home-canned foods where it can produce a neurotoxin in the pressured environment of negligently processed foods. If a can has a bulge in it, or does not smell right, chances are it may contain the botulism spore. You can kill the toxin by boiling the infected food for at least ten minutes. Another .mon bacteria Escherichia coli, or E. coli, is also known as "traveler’s diarrhea", and breeds in feces and dirty, untreated water, especially where the same water is re-used for washing, drinking and bathing. Food be.es contaminated when food safety precautions are not heeded and the germs remain on the food, only to be shipped out and ingested by unsuspecting individuals. Pathogens can also be released during the process of slaughtering livestock, by the accidental mixing of animal feces with the food being processed; unclean factories where food is prepared, canned and packaged; and using polluted water to process the food or even "clean" the instruments used in the processing of the food. Simple precautionary steps can be used to prevent contamination and the potential for life-threatening illness to affect a large amount of people who may .e in contact with an infected piece of food, such as vigorous hand washing with antibacterial soap and prior sterilization of all machinery and utensils used in processing the food. Knowing how to correctly can foods at home, such as vegetables or jams, will also prevent an encounter with a food-borne pathogen. The U.S. Department of Agriculture can send you information regarding these food safety procedures. About the Author: 相关的主题文章:

Selling Timeshare Property-quickchm

Sports-and-Recreation It seemed like such a good idea at the time. But now, that Adirondack cottage you shared with your college buddies isn’t the best place for your growing family. Or maybe that singles resort you joined doesn’t really fit with your retirement plans. For whatever reason, you may no longer want or need the timeshare property you purchased. Selling it is possible, and can be profitable. If you have a timeshare property to sell, you need the proper tools to ensure a quick and easy closing. Like any real estate transaction, this can be a daunting task that needs close attention and may require professional help. Listing Your Timeshare Property Have complete knowledge of what you are getting in return before you sell your timeshare property. Make sure to understand the terms of sale and guarantees, and keep asking questions until every matter is perfectly clear. You need professional, qualified advice; so if you’re not satisfied with your agent, find another one to do the job. Before you list your property, compare prices of other similar timeshares. Listing at a competitive price is beneficial for a quick closing. Be sure that you’re not pricing it too low, or too high. Find out the usual price set by developers and compare it to your desired selling price. Find a compromise to sell your timeshare property more easily. Whether or not you can sell your timeshare property can depend largely on market prices. Investors are looking for the best deal, and may choose a property with a lower price tag. Age is also a factor, so you may have trouble selling at the price you want if your property is older or less popular during the selling period. Take any nearby activities into consideration when listing your timeshare. Local tourist business means more money in the pricing scale, which in turn benefits you. Physical characteristics such as a great view can also fetch a higher price. If your timeshare property is on the seashore or fronting a beautiful mountain range, you will see greater profits. You should always post your listing so that potential buyers can find the benefits of your timeshare offer. Clearly describe the property in your listing, whether it be in print media, direct mail or online. Post a fair price, as overpriced units move slowly in a market driven by price and location. Beware of unconditional fees. These are up-front costs charged by agents and derived from a large percentage of their income. Find a professional agent that will sell your timeshare property for a fair fee. Getting Professional Help Selling your timeshare property can be much easier with a professional agent or timeshare company. While you’re saving the hassle, be sure that you’re also saving the cost. There are timeshare selling companies that require no commission, and save you the stress of dealing with a broker by taking care of the negotiating and other processes for you. You can make it easier for your agent to sell the property by giving him or her complete and accurate descriptions, location information and full details regarding your unit. Find a reputable agent that will advertise your property in newspapers and magazines, and on the Internet. Worldwide exposure is best, as potential buyers will be tourists and visitors looking for a vacation property. The timeshare industry is a worldwide success. Make your property known to qualified buyers in other countries with the farthest-reaching campaign available. Many timeshare companies offer professional Internet marketing consultants to make your website advertising work for you. The selling process also involves legalities such as title searches and financing details. Professional assistance is available to take care of these fine points. As in any industry, crooks and scammers are everywhere. Don’t be fooled by shady timeshare sellers who offer unrealistic claims, guarantees and timelines. Avoid making any agreements over the phone or online until you have verified the reseller’s experience and reputation. Ask for trusted, solid referrals to help you choose the right agent or timeshare resale company for you. When you are ready to sign your selling agreement, be sure that the professional you have chosen does not require any additional costs or closing fees. Finally, and of most importance, make sure that the law is on your side. Keep every part of your agreement legitimate, to protect yourself should anything happen to the deal. Selling your timeshare is like selling any property. Take the time to list and present your timeshare property in the best possible light. Keep it legal and enlist the help of a reliable agent or timeshare resale company. You will sell your property more quickly and get the best possible price for it. About the Author: 相关的主题文章: