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you can ensure everyone attending your wedding takes the time to fill out a little something in your guest book. Dedicate Pages to Guests Instead of having a guest book that everyone can just sign

Home-and-Family For anyone planning a wedding, the most important things to have are wedding guest books. This holds a lot of memory and value to the bride and groom and will be what guests sign when entering the ceremony or the reception. The book can also hold little comments left by guests as well. The bride and the groom are going to enjoy going through their guest book after the wedding to see what others have left. Years after the wedding, they can continue looking back and reading the comments and best wishes left by guests. The main problem with these books is that not everyone will sign them. However, with a few tips, you can ensure everyone attending your wedding takes the time to fill out a little something in your guest book. Dedicate Pages to Guests Instead of having a guest book that everyone can just sign, consider taking the time to dedicate a page to each guest. For those who have large weddings, this may be a bit time-consuming, but there are ways to make it more organized. Determine the amount of people you are going to have at your wedding, and buy one or more wedding guest books. Consider going in alphabetical order in order to allow people to find their name and page easier. Doing so allows the person to have an entire page to write something to you as opposed to trying to fit it in a few short lines. This can allow comments to be more personal and meaningful. Another thing to do is use side color letter tabs to allow people to jump to the tab that their first or last name begins with. Place in a Visible Spot The location you decide to place your guest book also plays a large role in the number of people who sign it. Placing it somewhere away from the crowd will only reduce the amount of people who sign it. Instead, consider placing it somewhere where it is going to be seen by everyone. Consider setting it in a platform by the entrance doors, or it can be sent around to everyone to ensure everyone signs it. Dedicate Someone You can assign someone to take some time and simply walk around asking people to sign the wedding guest books. This ensures everyone signs it, and this could be done after everyone eats and after toasts are made. Someone could be standing at the entrance greeting the guests and simply asking for them to sign the book. Weddings are a time of celebration, and small details such as this should never be left out. Each small detail is looked back on as a reminder of the bride and groom’s special day. Wedding guest books add to the memory of this celebration. There are several types to choose from and you can find one to match your theme and colors perfectly. Weddings should be a fun-filled event, and wedding accessories and guest books should be one less thing to worry about. 。

glass masters are created from the client supplied originals

Hardware DVD and CD duplication is the quickest and easiest way to create multiple copies for a wide range of media. Within the corporate sector it can be used for instructional videos, internal marketing, product catalogues, media presentations, training manuals, reports and .pany marketing. It can also be used for more creative purposes within the .mercial world such as software releases, band releases, eBooks, films and gaming. Regardless of its purpose, disc production is definitely a more economical and convenient means for data/video/audio storage and delivery. Almost every business, non-profit .anisation and private individual can use cheap DVD duplication to their advantage. In order to understand DVD duplication and its advantages you need to be aware of the terminology and be able to distinguish between DVD duplication and DVD replication. DVD Duplication is the process of duplicating data onto an existing pre-made disc (also known as "burning"). These discs, known as a DVD-R (short for Digital Versatile Disc Recordable), are loaded into burners where the information is extracted through digital means from the master source. Data is then etched onto recordable DVD-R media using a small laser found in drive burners or duplicator machines. The information is verified and the machine either accepts or rejects the copied version. After verification the disc moves onto the printing stage (if printing is required). This is where ink jet or thermal printers (using graphic files known as "artwork") print onto the upper surface of each new CD-R or DVD-R. This process is convenient to use (creating a quick lead time) and less expensive than replication due to the minimal setup costs. If a small number of discs are required, usually less than 1000 units, duplication is the preferred process. Replication (also known as "pressing") is used when mass quantities of a disc need to be made. It is a more professional manufacturing process where raw materials run through large disc-moulding machines that produce the basic DVD. Firstly, glass masters are created from the client supplied originals, the data is physically stamped or pressed into the other blank discs (then coated and protected with polycarbonate plastic). Most of these processes are fully automated with replication (only re-writing your information once onto the glass master) and the cost per unit is cheaper when orders are above one thousand units. A draw back of replication is that it has a longer lead time and can have a turnaround of two weeks or more. Understanding the difference between replication and duplication allows you to choose the correct process based on your needs. The fundamental difference to keep in mind is cost-effectiveness with regards to quantity and your required turnaround. In terms of the finished product, there is no difference in quality or consistency between a replicated and a duplicated disc. Generally, DVD technology is moving at a very fast pace and there is an entire new generation of optical discs (SL 4.7GB, DL 8.5GB and DS 9.4GB). DVD duplication provides endless potential for digital media storage and exhibition, delivering stunning video resolution and audio performance for both home entertainment and the professional market. 。

How In Home Elder Care Can Help Alzheimer’s Patients By

How To Choose The Right Assisted Living Residence In Albuquerque By: vikram kumar | Dec 24th 2014 – Old age .es with numerous demands, some of which cannot be satisfied single handedly and will therefore require specialized assistance in achieving. Senior citizens living homes are .ing up quickly with the vision of helping aged persons live through their golden years more .fortably and fulfilling Tags: What Is Assisted Living And What It Entails? By: vikram kumar | Dec 24th 2014 – Assisted living is described is that housing facility for people who are with disability and all other who may need some kind of special care. These kinds of facilities are there to offer these kinds of people with assistance or supervision, and this is mainly with the activities of daily living usually abbreviated as ADLs. Tags: Giving Seniors Special Home Care Treatment By: nathanhilson | Nov 20th 2014 – Home care specialists know the basic needs of seniors, Alzheimer patients and other individuals who need special treatment and attention, understand how the chronically ill patients and senior citizens adjust with certain conditions although being assisted properly by professional health aide, and make everything available … Tags: The Best Care Service In Chichester By: Liam Lee | Sep 24th 2013 – Employing the best professional care for you seniors is the surest way to ensure their quick recovery. Tags: Tips On Giving Your Seniors The Best Care By: Liam Lee | Sep 18th 2013 – The best care for your seniors can be achieved by taking advantage of the services rendered by Guardian Angel Carers. Tags: Appropriate Care For Your Seniors By: Liam Lee | Sep 4th 2013 – Guardian Angel Carers provides you a top notch caregiving services which are targeted at taking appropriate care of your seniors. Tags: Alzheimer’s And Dementia Care Facilities – Why You Should Move Your Loved One Earlier Rather Than La By: Carrie Roberts | Jul 19th 2013 – Alzheimer’s and dementia care facilities, such as Applewood Our House, are designed to assist families in taking care of their loved ones. Some people think it is not a terrific idea to leave their parents in assisted living facilities, but the truth is that assisted living facilities help families deal with the overwhelmin … Tags: Dementia Care Preston "�" Get Assistance For Your Daily Activities By Personal Care Services By: john adam | Jul 18th 2013 – Therefore home care solutions are be.ing the very first choice among numerous. Tags: Dementia Care South Ribble "�" Get The Best Benefits Of Individual Home Care Services By: john adam | Jul 18th 2013 – Personal care assistance provided at home enhances aged person’s standard of living. Tags: Dementia Care Fylde "�" Personal Care Services For Elderly People By: john adam | Jul 18th 2013 – Scope of personal Dementia care Fylde services depend on the requirement of the person. Tags: Dementia "�" Study Of Its Signs And Symptoms & The Nursing Care Plans For Dementia Patient By: CubbaCorre | Apr 25th 2013 – Dementia is a terminology used for a certain mental disorder which affects the daily routine function of a person detected with this disorder. Loss of memory is a .mon factor for this disorder and Alzheimer is one of the most general categories of this mental disorder. Tags: Dementia Care Designed To Meet Patient Needs By: inhomecare | Mar 15th 2013 – Dealing with dementia is a challenge in itself, but when patients are all treated alike, they lack the specific services they may need. It is important to realize that each patient has a specific set of needs. These needs are usually based on how well the patient is functioning and what abilities they still have. Additional … Tags: Grieve As You Go By: John Michel | Dec 5th 2012 – When you have a loved one who requires dementia care, there are always surprises ahead. While there can be difficult times ahead, this can also be an opportunity. Tags: Dementia Causes, Symptoms And Treatment By: Notaro Care Homes | Nov 28th 2012 – The foremost symptom of this health condition is memory loss. Either the person himself or his near and dear ones get to notice this symptom first. Dementia is incurable but in a few fortunate cases, the effects of this disease can be lessened with the help of the right medication and choice of lifestyle. Tags: Dementia Care In Golden, Colorado – Helping Seniors Live With Memory At The Moment By: Carrie Roberts | Oct 17th 2012 – When seeking dementia care in Golden, Colorado for senior citizens, it is necessary to discuss the available housing options, care, and treatment at potential facilities that you visit. People, who suffer from dementia… Tags: In Home Care Services Roseville "�" For Your Health Care Needs By: Blhc.org | Jun 17th 2012 – A Better Living Home Health Care Agency Roseville provides excellent care and full-service to seniors, day and night care as required. It is also the best solution when your loved one requires help but is not ready to move into nursing homes. Tags: Identifying The Signs Of Dementia By: Jason Lom | Mar 31st 2012 – The aging process produces some unwel.e changes, and one of the issues elderly people often struggle with is forgetfulness. It is not un.mon for older people to start forgetting basic things like where they put their car keys or what time they are supposed to be at the doctor’s office… Tags: How To Find Good Dementia Care Sacramento By: Blhc.org | Mar 6th 2012 – Everyone has a personal life which includes work, children, spouse, friends and other family members. If you try to attempt looking after a dementia patient on your own then all other aspects of your life can get greatly disrupted. Tags: Fantastic Jobs In Dementia Care For You Personally By: scota8dfha | Feb 29th 2012 – Aiding you to Discover Jobs In Dementia Care Today. Uncover a lot more regarding these ideas by checking out new post. Tags: Fantastic Jobs In Dementia Care To Suit Your Needs By: tomibsamat | Feb 29th 2012 – Fantastic Jobs In Dementia Care For You Personally. These fun ideas are outlined well in this page. Tags: For Dementia And Alzheimer’s Care, In Home Agencies Are Increasing In Popularity By: Jason Lom | Jan 23rd 2012 – Conditions like Alzheimer’s and dementia can be very difficult for a family to go through. But with more and more family trying to avoid sending their loved ones to a nursing home, an increasingly popular option is hiring an in home caregiver. Tags: Who Needs Dementia Care Or Alzheimer’s Care? By: Jason Lom | Dec 21st 2011 – Dementia and Alzheimer’s are increasingly .mon conditions among the elderly. But it’s often hard to tell the difference between normal memory loss and a worsening condition. Tags: 4 Signs Your Aging Family Member May Need Dementia Care Or Alzheimers Care By: Jason Lom | Dec 7th 2011 – Memory loss is .mon among the elderly, but sometimes it can be more than just a chronic condition. Here are 4 things to look for to determine if your aging loved one may need dementia or Alzheimers care. Tags: For My Parents, It Will Be An In-home Caregiver By: Jason Lom | Nov 29th 2011 – Most of us at some point will be faced with finding health care for aging loved ones. In some cases, you may even need someone who specializes in dementia care or Alzheimer’s care. When the time .es for me, the choice will be an in home caregiver. Tags: The Best Form Of Alzheimer’s Care By: Jason Lom | Nov 18th 2011 – When it .es to finding Alzheimer’s or dementia care for an aging loved one, you have a few different options. One of the options worthy of strong consideration is hiring an in home caregiver. Tags: In Home Alheimer’s Care Shows Love To An Aging Parent By: Jason Lom | Nov 14th 2011 – Many people have a misconception about in home caregivers administering Alzheimer’s or dementia care as being like a "Nurse Ratchet", but the truth is, in home care professionals that specialize in Alzheimer’s or dementia care are some of the kindest and most unselfish people you will ever run across. Tags: Is An In Home Caregiver Right For Your Family? By: Jason Lom | Oct 27th 2011 – Senior care is something most of us will have to confront at some point in our lives. When it .es time to decide which is best for your family, it may often .e down to a choice between a medical facility or in home caregiver. Tags: 4 .mon Signs Your Aging Loved One May Need Alzheimer’s Care Or Dementia Care By: Jason Lom | Oct 27th 2011 – Memory loss is a part of life, but sometimes it’s a sign of more serious problems. The challenge is often distinguishing between the two. Here are 4 .mon signs that the memory loss of your aging loved one could be a sign of a more serious illness like Alzheimer’s or dementia. Tags: Always Best Care Senior Services Expands With 11th Franchise In Texas! By: Tonja Edelman | Sep 7th 2011 – Always Best Care provides non-medical in-home care, assisted living placement services and skilled home health care through an international network of more than 175 independently owned and operated franchises. Tags: Senior .panion Pets By: Tonja Edelman | Aug 23rd 2011 – When the dog left, the man"��s demeanor faded, and did not speak again until the dog"��s next visit. Our team quickly realized that the dog was a key, not only to this gentleman"��s speech, but to his overall happiness and well-being. Tags: Picking The Right Dementia Care Home By: Jamie Simpson | Aug 9th 2011 – Tips on how to choose the right care Tags: Assisted Living Facilities Los Angeles Have Discovered With Dementia Bigger Is Better By: Jessica Rosen | Aug 2nd 2011 – This contains information about dementia and its relation to the aging process. This also highlights the importance of the Assisted Living Industry and the role Assisted Living Facilities Los Angeles and other healthcare ac.modations in major cities have across the nation. Tags: How In Home Elder Care Can Help Alzheimer’s Patients By: Jason Lom | Jul 22nd 2011 – Forgetting things is a normal part of aging. Sometimes, however, it can indicate a more serious problem. Tags: Why Choose A Dementia Care Home Over Home Caring By: Jamie Simpson | Jul 6th 2011 – Why should people choose a dementia care home for a relative over home caring Tags: Top Tips For Choosing Dementia Care Homes By: Jamie Simpson | Jun 11th 2011 – Tips on how best to choose a dementia care home. Tags: New Guidelines For Diagnosing Alzheimer"��s Disease By: Laura Luckett | May 19th 2011 – One of the most concerning aspects of Alzheimer"��s disease for those living with the condition, their families and their home care .panies is the absence of a definitive cure. However, scientists across the world are researching potential cures and knowledge about the condition is increasing all the time. Tags: Developing Cognizance Of The In-home Care Services By: Buck Shaw | May 17th 2011 – Parents are the ones whom we ought to consider like "��the visible Gods on earth"�� because they are the ones who give us life, warmth, shelter, food, education and develop our whole being. Tags: Spotting The Early Signs Of Dementia By: Jamie Simpson | May 5th 2011 – Spotting The Early Signs Of Dementia Tags: Different Types Of Dementia By: Laura Luckett | Apr 15th 2011 – The term "��dementia"�� is used to describe the symptoms that occur when the brain is affected by certain diseases and conditions, such as memory loss. What is important to understand is that there are various different types of dementia. Usually, people associate the term "��dementia"�� with Alzheimer"��s dis … Tags: Home Care Is The Care Which Your Seniors Need By: Buck Shaw | Mar 24th 2011 – People who cared for you in your younger ages now need your care, but you can"��t provide the care towards them, by always sitting near them because you must work to safeguard them. Tags: Fifteen Live-in Carers Take Part In Dementia Care Training By: Corinium Care | Mar 14th 2011 – The one-day course, held at the agency"��s head office in Nailsworth, Gloucestershire, featured all aspects of dementia from emotional issues to the physical aspects of moving and handling. Tags: Fifteen Live-in Carers Take Part In Dementia Care Training By: Corinium Care | Mar 14th 2011 – FIFTEEN live-in carers took part in a dementia training day, organised by Corinium Care. Tags: Dementia Care Be.es Indispensable Part Of Live-in Carers"�� Training By: Corinium Care | Feb 21st 2011 – Dementia is the term used to describe symptoms that occur when the brain is affected by specific diseases and conditions, such as Alzheimer"��s disease. Corinium Care has trained more than 200 people in dementia care in the last year in response to increasing demand. Tags: Senior Services And Assisted Living Services For The Elderly By: Martin Timm | Feb 15th 2011 – In the Waterloo, Iowa area, there are many options for the family of a person who has been diagnosed with having Alzheimer"��s disease and/or dementia. Tags: A Simple Guide For Choosing The Right Dementia Care Home By: Jamie Simpson | Jan 23rd 2011 – A Simple Guide For Choosing The Right Dementia Care Home Tags: Dementia Treatment – How Institutionalized Elders With Dementia Care In Nursing Home By: Cherry Garcia | Jan 17th 2011 – Numerous of elders residing in institutionalized homes which means a social function work on the behaviour of individual obtained cognitive impairment called Alzheimer"��s or dementia disease. The case of dementia professional specialist studies determined that 49% to 83% are suffering pain in nursing home. Why this existin … Tags: Dementia Care Be.es Indispensable Part Of Live-in Carers By: Corinium Care | Dec 13th 2010 – The .pany, based in Gloucestershire, provides free training in a raft of subjects for new carers. Tags: Dementia Care Be.es Indispensable Part Of Live-in Carers"�� Training By: Swimming Hippo | Nov 22nd 2010 – LIVE-IN care agency Corinium Care has trained more than 200 people in dementia care in the last year in response to increasing demand. Tags: The Best Care For Loved Ones With Alzheimers; Waterloo In-home Care And Waterloo Alzheimers Care By: Martin Timm | Oct 28th 2010 – In the Waterloo area, there are many programs and options for the family of a person who has been diagnosed with having Alzheimer"��s disease and/or Dementia. Waterloo Elder Care, Waterloo Assisted Living Services, and Waterloo Dementia Care are just three of many programs that offer guidance and support for those families … Tags: Dementia Care Available In Kansas City By: sumit.gurg | Aug 13th 2009 – There are times when we are so stressed that we tend to lose our balance and perception – making us feel old, weak and senile ahead of time. In most cases, the feeling could be just an exaggeration of our fears. But in some, feeling this way could just be the beginning of Dementia. Tags:

knowledge

Investing What are the key issues in master planning of land-to-housing development in the UK? Buying land, building then selling houses might seem like a simple idea, given the UK housing shortage. But even with cash, you are advised to work with professionals. With the difficult housing shortage in the UK, it might seem that investment in housing development would be a slam dunk opportunity for strong real asset growth. Indeed it can be but it is not a business for amateurs. Master planning of a land-to-housing scheme is the realm of experienced UK land investment specialists, and they must shepherd an investment through all stages of the process which typically requires multiple years. Rare is the lone investor who works from his or her own experiences, knowledge, associations and cash. The main questions that investor groups centre on include where growth is strongest?, where the need is greatest? and where is appropriate land available for development? all within a time fame that satisfies investor expectations. To that end, the qualified land investment .pany will journey through the following tactical stages: Trends research The leading numbers .e from the broader economy, of course. Current key drivers include the housing shortage, the uncertainties of modest economic growth and stagnation, as well as stringent lending standards. The Cameron government is trying to drive the housing market with the multibillion-Pound program known as the Funding for Lending Scheme, which is reportedly driving a modest uptick in buying. But drilling down from the macroeconomics one finds key opportunities in specific areas where local employment growth is robust. That is where housing needs are particularly acute and local planning authorities are most amenable to zoning changes that will allow housing development. Location analysis Still, not every acre of land will ac.modate housing or be available at a reasonable price. Using financial modelling as a guide, land investors will enlist site investigation teams, value appraisers and advisors on tax and legal issues. Their jobs are to collectively identify risks and returns within acceptable and optimal ranges. While it may not be possible to establish with .plete certainty that a zoning change can happen, the management team will have a fairly solid read on what the local authorities are amenable to do. If the investors business case is solid, all such location factors will encourage and not impede development. Strategic acquisition and assembly Rarely is a property identified by accident. Seasoned land consultants maintain proactive relationships with statutory bodies, bankers, corporate finance and .mercial agents who effectively scout such locations. With sufficient investment capital, a well-managed fund is able to avoid debt financing. Once the optimal property is identified and acquired, site assembly .mences. Riveted on an expected internal rate of return (IRR), the site is developed according to plan and a schedule that matches investor expectations with homebuilder needs. Exit plan The forward sale works optimally with top-tier homebuilders. With established relationships between the investors and developers, most transactions are ideally made by private treaty (off-market transactions), with obvious cost savings in such arrangements. Many such sales are contracted long in advance, satisfying local planning permission bodies that the land will be developed relatively quickly. The fact that the end-buyers exist long before construction .mences is reassuring to land investors and those planning authorities. Under current housing shortage conditions, this could remain a driving factor for several years into the future. Persons interested in land investment via joint investor groups should independently work with a personal financial advisor. It is important to consider the risks and timing of land development programmes in relation to ones .prehensive portfolio. 。

this will lead to extra public expenditure. So he was advised that

Did Gordon Brown steal your personal pension? He used to be the chancellor of the exchequer and stands accused of directly creating the crisis in British pension funds by draining ordinary working peoples retirement funds for the purpose of getting extra tax in.e. Many economic research groups blame the dramatic reduction in pension values due to the decision of Gordon Brown to collect an extra £5bn a year by removing tax credits from their equity investments held in the stock market. For many years pension funds had the ability to reclaim the tax on their in.e from dividends. The whole idea of investing in a pension fund was that the fund was allowed to grow free of all tax both in.e and capital taxes. It does make basic financial sense as clearly it is a good idea to provide for retirement so as not to be an additional burden on the state in later life. It was simply not a tax fiddle as when you came to take your pension you could take a small element, about a quarter,in a tax free cash lump sum but the balance of the fund would be used to buy a life annuity and when this was paid out to you on a monthly basis for the rest of your life you would pay tax on that in.e. By allowing the pension fund to grow and reclaim the tax on the dividend in.e it would re-invest that in.e in more shares and it has long been accepted that the reinvestment of dividend in.e generates exponential rates of return. Ordinary working people would took out these personal pensions knowing full well that tax relief was assured on their pension funds it was taken as a [&quote;]Given[&quote;] as if it was written in tablets of stone. .pany pension schems also worked in exactly the same way for many years. Gordon Brown is clearly a serial destroyer of the ordinary working man as he decided to break the tablet of stone and in so doing he ruined pension funds. With what appeared to be a growing economy and with the equity markets at high levels all of which had been inherited from the previous government with Ken Clark as chancellor the new labour government thought that they could simply get away with it and that pension funds could take a massive hit. However they were clearly a touch less than cautious and very imprudent. They failed to listen to their own advisers as documents released under the freedom of information act have shown that Gordon Brown ignored any advice offered and just ruthlessly pursued his idea. I wonder if it is simply that he does not like the idea of the stock market and does not like the idea of personal, private or .pany pensions. I say this as looking at one of his own web blogs he does seem to be very interested in the works of extreme .munists. I quote what Gordon Brown says:- [&quote;]Later, whilst at Edinburgh University studying for my doctorate, I became truly enamoured by the works of Joseph Stalin and wrote several essays and gave seminars on the progressive policies of Stalin as well as Mao Zedong and their important and lasting contributions to the world we live in. I still have a deep admiration for Uncle Jo today[&quote;] Perhaps then it is just that he is really anti capitalist against free enterprise and in truth a .munist and he wanted to destroy our financial systems, pensions and the equity market all at the same time. He has to be congratulated as he does an excellent job. Whilst this might sound tle extreme it does sound like the action of a spoilt child one who has seen a brilliant job done by his predecessors and then wanted to ruin it for every body else. Why else would he sell OUR gold reserves for buttons and tell every body he was going to do it in advance. Why not sell part of the holding? Other governments with more financial savvy than him have bought the gold and are now sitting on great profits. They are known as serial creators of wealth. During the perod 15th May to 27th May 1997 Gordon Brown was advised by his own officals:- 1.Of course, the downside here is that benefits would be smaller and this would be running counter to a policy of improving retirement in.e. 2.Employees (or their employers) would have to increase contributions if pensions were to be maintained. 3.The general message is that the big employer pension schemes will be able to cope at some cost to employers. But members of money purchase schemes could all be potential losers. 4.There is very big uncertainty over the extent to which pension schemes could absorb the effect of the loss of tax credits. 5.The change would therefore lead to a reduction in pension benefits for the lower paid. 6.Some schemes — which will be given a high profile by the pensions industry — will be pushed into actuarial deficit by the loss of tax credits. 7.It is possible that some local authority pension schemes may need to be topped up. If so, this will lead to extra public expenditure. So he was advised that: Benefits would be smaller, contributions would have to be increased, members of money purchase schemes will be losers, there is big uncertainty, a reduction in pension benefits for the lower paid, some schemes will be pushed into deficit, this will lead to extra public expenditure. So there you have it his very own advisers told him in no uncertain terms of the risks and yet he still took the gamble with other people’s pensions. Worse of all what he did was a reduction in pensions for the lower paid. The proof of the pudding is in the eating as they say so lets have a look at what the Pearl Group a major pension provider said in a recent publication in 2010 which is 12 years after Gordon Browns raid on pension funds came into effect. They state that "Since 2000, investment returns have been poor and as a result, asset share values have reduced." Is Gordon Brown a financial fool? Yes of course he is one of the biggest since the depression of the 1930’s.